Some Essential Aspects of The Mysterious Water.

Some Essential Aspects of The Mysterious Water.

The symbolism of water has a universal meaning of purity and fertility in any part of the world through the human history. Symbolically, it is often viewed as the source of life itself as we see evidence in countless creation myths in which life emerges from primordial waters. Water can have very different meaning and symbols such; Life, Motion, Recreation, Blessing, Intuition, Subconscious, Fertilization, Purification, Transformation, Reflection. Various rituals and religions are practicing water faith and blessings in different ways and forms.

IMAGE. Photo by a|Liepa.

The world’s most recognizable chemical formula (H2O). Water may be one of the most familiar molecules on the planet, but it certainly isn't so ordinary as it looks. The water size molecules are around ~3Å (ångström), almost tiniest molecules in the Earth. Water's unique chemical properties make it so complicated that after decades of research, knowledge seekers, researchers, homeopaths, and scientists still have much to learn about this remarkable and mysterious substance.

IMAGE. Photo by a|Liepa.

If you drop an ice cube into a glass of water, it floats. This happens because water expands as it freezes, which makes the solid form less dense than the liquid. But most other liquids do just the opposite such they shrink and become denser as they freeze, so the solid form sinks. Water is amphoteric, meaning it is both an acid and a base—it produces H+ and OH− ions by self-ionization. This regulates the concentrations of H+ and OH− ions in water. The simplest systematic name of water is hydrogen oxide. This is analogous to related compounds such as hydrogen peroxide and deuterium oxide (heavy water).

IMAGE. Photo by a|Liepa. Heavy water does not float, but sinks on the bottom. See more here

IMAGE. Photo by a|Liepa.

The sea spray forming on rocks contains high levels of salt and other dissolved substances. Recent studies indicate that salt contained in sea spray droplets may play an important role in earth atmospheric chemistry. Some ions are present in the surface layers of water particles and chemistry can occur. In fact, exposed ions on the ocean surface and in aerosols could potentially bind and react with all sorts of chemicals from the atmosphere. Consequently, fog and ocean spray droplets may be more chemically reactive. During chemical reactions, molecular parts ranging from tiny subatomic particles like electrons to entire atoms such as hydrogen get shuffled around, transferred, shared and exchanged. However, water is not simply a passive medium in chemical reactions. It plays an active role, constantly making and breaking chemical bonds around reactive molecules in order to shuttle them from one compound to another. Nobody still doesn't precisely know how water accomplishes these tasks. The results shed light on a range of extremely common reactions that involve electrons and hydrogen atoms. For example, the oxidations that rust iron and age your skin, both involve the exchange of electrons in water. The microbe-fighting and pH-balancing chemistry that keeps rivers, lakes, oceans, ponds, fish tanks, swimming pools and any other basins clean rely on a delicate interplay of electron exchanges and hydrogen transfers. Read more about sea water here.

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A surprising characteristic of water is that it boils at a very high-temperature 100C at sea level—compared to similarly sized molecules. If water behaved like other liquids, it would exist as a gas at the temperatures and pressures found on Earth, and life, as we know it couldn’t survive.

H2O In water, each hydrogen nucleus is bound to the central oxygen atom by a pair of electrons that are shared electron pair a covalent chemical bond. In H2O, only two of the six outer-shell electrons of oxygen are used for this purpose, leaving four electrons, which are organized, into two non-bonding pairs. The four electron pairs surrounding the oxygen tend to arrange themselves as far from each other as possible in order to minimize repulsions between these clouds of negative charge. This would ordinarily result in a tetrahedral geometry in which the angle between electron pairs (and therefore the H-O-H bond angle) is 109.5°. 

However, because the two non-bonding pairs remain closer to the oxygen atom, these exert a stronger repulsion against the two covalent bonding pairs, effectively pushing the two hydrogen atoms closer together. The result is a distorted tetrahedral arrangement in which the H—O—H angle is 104.5°

The water molecule carries no net electric charge, its eight electrons are not distributed uniformly; there is a slightly more negative charge (purple) at the oxygen end of the molecule, and a compensating positive charge (green) at the hydrogen end. The resulting polarity is largely responsible for water's unique properties.

When liquid water is cooled, it contracts like one would expect until a temperature of approximately 4 degrees Celsius is reached. After that, it expands slightly until it reaches the freezing point, and then when it freezes it expands by approximately 9%.

Ice, like all solids, has a well-defined structure; each water molecule is surrounded by four neighboring H2Os. Two of these are hydrogen-bonded to the oxygen atom on the central H2O molecule, and each of the two hydrogen atoms is similarly bonded to another neighboring H2O. The stable arrangement of hydrogen-bonded water molecules in ice gives rise to the beautiful hexagonal symmetry that reveals itself in every snowflake.

IMAGE by Wilson Bentley, from Wikipedia

Have you ever watched an insect walk across the surface of a pond? The water strider takes advantage of the fact that the water surface acts like an elastic membrane that resists deformation when a small weight is placed on it. This is all due to the surface tension of the water. For a molecule that finds itself at the surface, the situation is quite different; it experiences forces only sideways and downward, and this is what creates the stretched-membrane effect.

IMAGE. Photo by a|Liepa.

One might think that rain or snow would be exempt from contamination, but when water vapor condenses out of the atmosphere it always does so on a particle of dust which releases substances into the water, and even the purest air contains carbon dioxide which dissolves to form carbonic acid.

Carbon dioxide is the most significant long-lived greenhouse gas in Earth's atmosphere. Carbon dioxide is soluble in water, it occurs naturally in groundwater, rivers and lakes, ice caps, glaciers, and seawater. It is present in deposits of petroleum and natural gas. Carbon dioxide is odorless at normally encountered concentrations. Carbon dioxide is produced during the processes of decay of organic materials and the fermentation of sugars in bread, beer, and winemaking. Carbon Dioxide is present in water in the form of a dissolved gas. Surface waters normally contain less than 10 ppm up to 300ppm in different water types free carbon dioxide.

IMAGE. Photo by a|Liepa.

"Pure" rainwater always contains some dissolved carbon dioxide which makes it slightly acidic. When this water comes into contact with sediments, it tends to dissolve them, and in the process becomes alkaline.

An example of an ionic solute is table salt; the sodium chloride, NaCl, separates into Na+ cations and Cl− anions, each being surrounded by water molecules. The ions are then easily transported away from their crystalline lattice into solution. An example of a nonionic solute is table sugar. The water dipoles make hydrogen bonds with the polar regions of the sugar molecule (OH groups) and allow it to be carried away into solution. Water molecules interact strongly with ions, which are electrically charged atoms or molecules. Dissolution of ordinary salt (NaCl) in water yields a solution containing the ions Na+ and Cl –. Owing to its high polarity, the H2O molecules closest to the dissolved ion are strongly attached to it, forming what is known as the inner or primary hydration shell. Positively charged ions such as Na+ attract the negative (oxygen) ends of the H2O molecules. The ordered structure within the primary shell creates, through hydrogen-bonding, a region in which the surrounding waters are also somewhat ordered; this is the outer hydration shell or cybotactic region.

IMAGE: Salt crystals, via.

It has long been known that the intracellular water very close to any membrane or organelle (sometimes called vicinal water) is organized very differently from bulk water and that this structured water plays a significant role in governing the shape (and thus biological activity) of largely folded biopolymers. It is important to keep in mind, however, that the structure of the water in these regions is imposed solely by the geometry of the surrounding hydrogen bonding sites.

Water can hydrogen-bond not only to itself but also to any other molecules that have -OH or -NH2 units hanging off of them. This includes simple molecules such as alcohols, surfaces such as glass, and macromolecules such as proteins. The biological activity of proteins (of which enzymes are an important subset) is critically dependent not only on their composition but also on the way these huge molecules are folded; this folding involves hydrogen-bonded interactions with water, and also between different parts of the molecule itself. Anything that disrupts these intramolecular hydrogen bonds will denature the protein and destroy its biological activity. This is essentially what happens when you boil an egg; the bonds that hold the eggwhite protein in its compact folded arrangement break apart so that the molecules unfold into a tangled, insoluble mass which, like Humpty Dumpty, cannot be restored to their original forms. Note that hydrogen-bonding need not always involve water; thus the two parts of the DNA double helix are held together by H—N—H hydrogen bonds.

According to modern-day proponents of homeopathy, it must. Homeopathic remedies are made by diluting solutions of various substances so greatly that not even a single molecule of the active substance can be expected to be present in the final solution. Now that even the homeopaths have come to accept this fact, they explain that the water somehow retains the "imprint" or "memory" of the original solute.

IMAGE. Photo by a|Liepa.

In general, ionic and polar substances such as acids, alcohols, and salts are relatively soluble in water. Substances that will mix well and dissolve in water (e.g. salts) are known as hydrophilic substances, while those that do not mix well with water (e.g. fats and oils) are known as hydrophobic substances. The ability of a substance to dissolve in water is determined by whether or not the substance can match or better the strong attractive forces that water molecules generate between other water molecules. If a substance has properties that do not allow it to overcome these strong intermolecular forces, the molecules are "pushed out" from the water, and do not dissolve.

When an ionic or polar compound enters the water, it is surrounded by water molecules (hydration). The relatively small size of water molecules (~ 3 angstroms) allows many water molecules to surround one molecule of solute. The partially negative dipole ends of the water are attracted to positively charged components of the solute, and vice versa for the positive dipole ends.

The actual amount of dissolved oxygen (in mg/L) will vary depending on temperature, pressure, and salinity. First, the solubility of oxygen decreases as temperature increases. This means that warmer surface water requires less dissolved oxygen to reach 100% air saturation than does deeper, cooler water. For example, at sea level (1 atm or 760 mmHg) and 4°C, 100% air-saturated water would hold 10.92 mg/L of dissolved oxygen. But if the temperature were raised to room temperature, 21°C, there would only be 8.68 mg/L Do at 100% air saturation. Second dissolved oxygen decreases exponentially as salt levels increase. That is why, at the same pressure and temperature, saltwater holds about 20% less dissolved oxygen than freshwater. Third, dissolved oxygen will increase as pressure increases. This is true of both atmospheric and hydrostatic pressures. Water at lower altitudes can hold more dissolved oxygen than water at higher altitudes.

If the pH of water is too high or too low, the aquatic organisms living within it will die. pH can also affect the solubility and toxicity of chemicals and heavy metals in the water. The majority of aquatic creatures prefer a pH range of 6.5-9.0, though some can live in water with pH levels outside of this range.

Nitrogen gas does not react with water. It does dissolve in water. Nitrogen (N2) solubility at 20oC and pressure = 1 bar is approximately 20 mg/L. Nitrogen solubility may differ between compounds. Nitrogen (I) oxide solubility is 12 g/L, and nitriloacetate (salt) solubility is 640 g/L, whereas nitrogen chloride is water insoluble. Nitrates and ammonia dissolve in water readily.

Seawater contains approximately 0.5 ppm nitrogen (dissolved inorganic nitrogen compounds without N2. The amount is clearly lower at the surface, being approximately 0.1 ppb. River water concentrations vary strongly but are approximately 0.25 ppm in general.

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To a chemist, the term "pure" has to mean only in the context of a particular application or process. The distilled or de-ionized water we use in the laboratory contains dissolved atmospheric gases and occasionally some silica, but their small amounts and relative inertness make these impurities insignificant for most purposes. When the water of the highest obtainable purity is required filtration, it is commonly filtered, de-ionized, and triple-vacuum distilled. But even this "chemically pure" water is a mixture of isotopic species: there are two stable isotopes of both hydrogen (H1 and H2, the latter often denoted by D) and oxygen (O16 and O18) which give rise to combinations such as H2O18, HDO16, etc., all of which are readily identifiable in the infrared spectra of water vapor. And to top this off, the two hydrogen atoms in water contain protons whose magnetic moments can be parallel or antiparallel, giving rise to ortho- and para-water, respectively. The two forms are normally present in a o/p ratio of 3:1. Our ordinary drinking water, by contrast, is never chemically pure, especially if it has been in contact with sediments. Groundwater’s (from springs or wells) always contain ions of calcium and magnesium, and often iron and manganese as well; the positive charges of these ions are balanced by the negative ions carbonate/bicarbonate, and occasionally some chloride and sulfate.

IMAGE. Photo by a|Liepa.

Read about How to Use Mineral Crystal Particles with Hydrogen Plasma Rich Water click here.

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